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Subjective Intelligence
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In creating artificial intelligence, the first question that comes up, long before you can begin writing code, is how to define intelligence: what is the right criterion for it? Does it require the complex biological structure of the human brain? We think not. We maintain that intelligence can only be judged by another intelligent entity, based exclusively on the observed behavior of the subject.

This is because intelligence can only be perceived from experience. We assess intelligence constantly, based on what others say or do; we decide on the intelligence of our peers by listening. Even in job interviews, no one insists on CAT scans to measure the applicant’s brain activity. We simply observe their behavior and judge from it as to the nature and quality of their intelligence.
Intelligence as judged through Internet chat
The same phenomenon occurs in Internet chat, where strong relationships are built through text alone. The intelligence and emotional qualities of the other individual are inferred by what they type and the speed of their responses. The measure of one chat partner’s mental ability is entirely in the hands of the other chat partner.
Intelligence as defined by Turing
Turing identified this subjective nature of intelligence in his paper
Computing Machinery and Intelligence. In his paper, he suggested what came to be know as the Turing Test for machine intelligence. The Turing test is a modification of a popular parlor game of the time known as the imitation game. In the imitation game a person (the interrogator) has to determine which of his two hidden conversation partners, one male and the other female, is the real female by interrogation alone. He cannot hear their voices as they correspond over a teletype, an archaic version of today’s chat applications. The man is supposed to answer the interrogators questions in a way that would fool the interrogator to think that he is the woman, and the woman has to act like herself.
In Turing’s modified version for testing machine intelligence, the interrogator has to tell who is the real human between a computer and a human with whom he converses on screen. If the interrogator cannot decide in favor of the human or computer, then that computer can be said to be intelligent. Turing and the Child Machine  Related Article