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Artificial Intelligence
From Myth to Reality


Further Reading
Philosophy of Language
Language and Mind
The 1968 seminal work by Noam Chomsky, complete with a list of further reading from Locke, Descartes, Wittgenstein and Saussure
The Evolution of Language
This work examines the assumption that the evolution of language is forced by natural selection mainly because of its advantage as a tool and weapon for and within the social struggle of our ancestors. By Rüdiger Vaas, Institute of Philosophy, University of Stuttgart & Institute of Zoology, University of Hohenheim
The Role of Language in Intelligence
"We human beings may not be the most admirable species on the planet, or the most likely to survive for another millennium, but we are without any doubt at all the most intelligent. We are also the only species with language. What is the relation between these two obvious facts?" An essay by Daniel C. Dennett
Thinking Without English
Are all (or most?) of our human productive thought in fact carried out in our natural language? From Behavior and Philosophy, Vol. 23 (1995)
Consciousness in Human and Robot Minds
Do we really have a reason for skepticism regarding the possibility of achieving machine consciousness? An essay by Daniel C. Dennett, Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University
How Brains Think
The full text of this book - concerned with the enigma of language and thought - by William H. Calvin, of the University of Washington
Language and Mind: Current Thoughts on Ancient Problems
An article by Noam Chomsky, stating the claim that "unless the mind already possesses the basic principles of language, no amount of evidence could provide them; and they are completely beyond the intellectual range of other organisms"
Language and Thought
An essay by Christopher Gauker on the relation between language and thought. From the Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind
Language, Perception and Action: Philosophical Issues
An extract from the book "The Natural Origins of Language" by Robin Allot, in which the writer aims to tie together the philosophical concern with language and the philosophical discussion of perception in ancient and modern times
Pragmatism and the Philosophy of Language
A essay by Danielle Macbeth, Haverford College, originally published in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research
What has AI in Common with Philosophy?
"AI needs many ideas that have hitherto been studied only by philosophers. This is because a robot, if it is to have human level intelligence and ability to learn from its experience, needs a general world view in which to organize facts". By John McCarthy, 1996